2012 International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual Meeting

June 23, 2012

The following abstracts and posters were presented at the 9th Annual International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual Meeting in Clearwater, FL.  The abstract will be published this fall in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition

Kre-Alkalyn® supplementation does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations in comparison to creatine monohydrate
A.R. Jagim, J.M. Oliver, A. Sanchez, E. Galvan, J. Fluckey, S. Reichman, S. Talcott, K. Kelly, C. Meninger, C. Rasmussen, R.B. Kreider.   Department of Health and Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX  77843-4243

Background
Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been repeatedly shown to be a safe and effective form of creatine to use in dietary supplements.  However, a number of new creatine formulations have been purported to be more efficacious and/or safer forms of creatine.  Kre-Alkayn® (KA, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) is a pH balanced form of creatine that is purported to promote greater creatine retention because it would theoretically reduce conversion to creatinine during the digestion process, decrease the need to ingest high doses of creatine to promote muscle creatine retention, and therefore have less side effects.   This is despite the fact that short and long-term CrM supplementation has been shown to increase muscle creatine content with little to no conversion to creatinine in athletic and clinical populations as well has elicit little to no side effects.  The purpose of this study was to determine if a pH balanced form of creatine (Kre-Alkayn® (KA), All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer recommended doses as well as high doses promotes greater creatine retention and/or training adaptations than CrM.

Methods
In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance trained participants (20.2±2 yrs, 181±7 cm, 82±12 kg, 14.7±5 % body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) for 28-days (20 g/d for 7-d, 5 g/d for 21-d), an equivalent amount of KA as a high dose supplement (KA-H), or the manufacturer’s recommended dose of KA (1.5 g/d for 28-d, KA-L). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, 1RM bench press and leg press, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days.   Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-d, respectively.

Results
Muscle free creatine content increased in all groups over time (1.7±22 and 10.2±23 mmol/kg DW, p=0.03) with no significant differences among groups (KA-L –3.3±19.3, 0.53±22; KA-H 1±12.8, 9.1±23; CrM 8.2±32, 22.3±28 mmol/kg DW, p=0.19).  In percentage terms, free creatine muscle content significantly increased over time (10.7±41, 29±46%, p= 0.003) with no differences observed among groups (KA-L -5.9±35, 11.9±40; KA-H 6.2±29, 27.3±49; CrM 34.6±50, 50.4±45%, p=0.10).   Bodyweight increased in all groups over time (0.9±1.9, 1.42±2.5 kg, p<0.01) with no significant differences among groups (KA-L 0.7±0.83, 0.9±1.6; KA-H 1.7±2.9, 2.3±3.7; CrM 0.56±1.1, 1.1±1.4 kg, p=0.29).  Fat-free mass significantly increased over time for all groups (0.67±0.9, 0.89±1.2 kg, p<0.01) with no differences among groups (KA-L 0.42±1.2, 0.37±1.3; KA-H 0.96±0.9, 1.2±1.4; CrM 0.6±0.8, 1.1±0.9 kg, p=0.16).  Body fat percent decreased over time (-0.28±1, -0.22±1.4 %, p=0.42) for all groups with no differences among groups (KA-L -0.04±1.3, 0.15±1.2; KA-H -0.3±0.7, -0.31±1.6; CrM -0.5±0.9, -0.5±1.4 %, p=0.35).   There was a significant increase in 1RM for bench press in all groups over time (8.1±9.7 kg, p<0.01) with no differences between groups (KA-L 7.1±3; KA-H 7.3±15; CrM 10±8 kg, p=0.73).  There was no significant change in leg press 1RM (p=0.33).   Total work performed on the WAC test increased in all groups over time (-69±1,030, 552±1,361 J, p=0.003) with no differences among groups (KA-L -278±676, 64±1,287; KA-H 412±1,041, 842±1,369; CrM -301±1,224, 775±1,463 J, p=0.27).

Conclusions
Neither manufacturers recommended doses or equivalent loading doses of KA promoted greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, strength, or anaerobic capacity than CrM.   These findings do not support claims that KA is a more efficacious form of creatine.

Funding
Supported by AlzChem AG, Germany

Kre-Alkalyn® supplementation does not exhibit a safer clinical profile or have less side effects in comparison to creatine monohydrate
E. Galvan, A.R. Jagim, J.M. Oliver, A. Sanchez, J. Fluckey, S. Reichman, S. Talcott, K. Kelly, C. Meninger, C. Rasmussen, R.B. Kreider.  Department of Health and Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX  77843-4243

Background
Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been repeatedly shown to be a safe and effective form of creatine to use in dietary supplements.  However, a number of new creatine formulations have been purported to be more efficacious and/or safer forms of creatine.  Kre-Alkayn® (KA, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) is a pH balanced form of creatine that is purported to promote greater creatine retention because it would theoretically reduce conversion to creatinine during the digestion process, decrease the need to ingest high doses of creatine to promote muscle creatine retention, and therefore have less side effects.  This is despite the fact that short and long-term CrM supplementation has been shown to be safe and efficacious in athletic and clinical populations.  The purpose of this study was to determine if a pH balanced form of creatine (Kre-Alkayn® (KA), All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) is as safe as CrM ingestion.

Methods
In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance trained participants (20.2±2 yrs, 181±7 cm, 82±12 kg, 14.7±5 % body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) for 28-days (20 g/d for 7-d, 5 g/d for 21-d), an equivalent amount of KA as a high dose supplement (KA-H), or the manufacturer’s recommended dose of KA (1.5 g/d for 28-d, KA-L) while maintaining their normal training programs.  Fasting blood samples and DEXA determined bone density data were collected at 0, 7, and 28-days. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures and are presented as mean ± SD after 0, 7 and 28 d for liver and muscle enzymes and protein markers; blood lipids and triglycerides; bone mass and markers of bone metabolism; and, general hematology markers.   Questionnaires were administered after each testing period asking participants to report any side-effects.

Results
No significant time x group effects were seen for blood urea nitrogen (BUN, p=0.77), BUN to creatinine ratio (p=0.36), aspartate aminotransferase (p=0.71), alanine aminotransferase (p=0.53), total protein (p=0.45), total bilirubin (p=0.25),total cholesterol (TCHL, p=0.97), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, p=0.656),TCHL:HDL (p=0.08), triglycerides  (p=0.47), bone mineral content (p=0.71), albumin  (ALB, p=0.89), globulin (GLOB, p=0.43), the ratio of ALB to GLOB (p=0.46), calcium (p=0.79), alkaline phosphatate (p=0.66), glucose (p=0.43), white blood cell count (p=0.466), red blood cell count (p=0.69), hemoglobin (p=0.67), mean corpuscular volume (p=0.581), mean corpuscular hemoglobin  (p=0.493), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.71), red blood cell distribution width (p=0.929), platelet count (p=0.477) and hematocrit (p=0.693).  There was a trend that higher doses of supplemental creatine promoted greater increases in serum creatinine (KA-L: 1.04±0.08, 1.08±0.11, 1.1±0.1; KA-H: 1.1±0.14, 1.2±0.18, 1.3±0.13; CrM: 1.1±0.19, 1.3±0.2, 1.2±0.15 mg/dl, p=0.071) but these values remained well within normal values for active individuals.  Some group x time effects were also observed among groups in Low-Density Lipoprotein levels (KA-L: 83.4±16, 86.5±16.4, 81.4±17.9; KA-H: 79.4±18.2, 82.7±19, 83.7±16; CrM: 89.8±20.5, 81.4±14.7, 92.5±17.4 mg/dl, p=0.004)).  There were no side-effects reported by the participants at any time throughout the study.

Conclusions
Neither manufacturers recommended doses or equivalent loading doses of KA compared to CrM resulted in any negative side-effects or health outcomes.  Additionally, there was no evidence that CrM supplementation experienced a greater degradation to creatinine.   These findings suggest that KA is just as safe to consume as CrM with minimal side-effects.

Funding
Supported by AlzChem AG, Germany