Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2017 – Volume 49 – Issue 5S – p 987
METHODS: Eight exercise-training studies performed from 2002–2014 were examined relative to tertiles of PRO ingestion (Low, <0.8 g/kg/d; Moderate; >0.8-1.2 g/kg/d; High >1.2 g/kg/d). The Primary outcome is clinically significant weight loss (CSWL, 5%). Secondary outcomes include anthropometry and measures of cardiovascular health. Data were analyzed using GLM adjusted for age, study and respective baseline values. Chi-square and adjusted residual analyses were used to determine categorical differences.
RESULTS: Protein ingestion was: Low (n=278; 0.65 g/kg/d ± 0.12; range 0.24-0.80), Moderate (n=225; 0.98 g/kg/d ± 0.12; range 0.891-1.19) and High (142 (n=142; 1.66 g/kg/d ± 0.42; range 1.20-3.28). Weight change was: Gained weight (12%; 1.01 kg, 95% CI, 0.24, 1.78), exhibited non-CSWL (50%; -1.81 kg, 95% CI, -2.04, -1.59) and achieved CSWL (39%; -7.17 kg (95% CI, -7.42, -6.92). Post-hoc assessment showed that High PRO consumers did not gain a significant amount of weight (0.70 kg, 95% CI, -0.42, 1.81), while Low (0.97 kg, 95% CI, 0.30, 1.64) and Moderate PRO consumers did (1.36 kg, 95% CI, 0.84, 1.89). No other significant differences were observed for weight loss or lean body mass relative to PRO tertiles. Interestingly, 57% of those consuming higher PRO (1.66 ± 0.42 g/kg/d) achieved CSWL vs. ~33% in low (0.65 g/kg/d) and moderate PRO 0.98 g/kg/d ± 0.12) consumers (P-for-trend, 0.001). Further comparison demonstrated that Low PRO consumers were significantly unlikely to achieve CSWL (adjres= -3.1), while those ingesting High PRO were significantly more likely to achieve CSWL (adjres = 4.9).
CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of difference for magnitude of weight loss between PRO groups, high PRO consumers were significantly more likely to achieve CSWL during a short exercise intervention consisting of resistance and aerobic training. Equally, higher PRO consumption may offset the magnitude of weight gain vs. lower PRO intakes if weight loss is not achieved.
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